Text description: Social connectedness among Australian males

Infographic 1

Funnel infographic:
Community integration, Attachment relationships, and Self-perceived social support, all lead to Social connectedness 


<< Return to Infographic 1.

Infographic 2: Types of attachment relationships

Infographic

  • Family
  • Household
  • Friends
  • Relatives 

<< Return to Infographic 2.

Figure 1.1: Distribution of household composition by age group among adult males in 2015/16

Stacked bar chart

  • 45-60 years:
    • Single, lives alone 8.7%
    • Single, lives with others 2.5%
    • Couple, no children 4.8%
    • Single parent 7.5%
    • Couple and children 75.4%
    • Other 0.7%
  • 35-44 years:
    • Single, lives alone 5.7%
    • Single, lives with others 4.5%
    • Couple, no children 7.2%
    • Single parent 6.4%
    • Couple and children 75.9%
    • Other 0.3%
  • 25-34 years:
    • Single, lives alone 5.0%
    • Single, lives with others 24.6%
    • Couple, no children 22.4%
    • Single parent 4.2%
    • Couple and children 43.0%
    • Other 0.7%
  • 18-24 years:
    • Single, lives alone 2.5%
    • Single, lives with others 87.8%
    • Couple, no children 6.6%
    • Single parent; 1.34%
    • Couple and children 3.13%
    • Other 0%

<< Return to Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.2: Prevalence of availability of social support across individual MOS Social Support Scale items among adult males, 2015/16

Stacked bar chart:

  • Someone who understands your problems:
    • Support available most-all of the time 62.3%
    • Support available some of the time 19.7%
    • Support available none-a little of the time 18.0%
  • Someone to turn to for suggestions about how to deal with a problem:
    • Support available most-all of the time 63.8%
    • Support available some of the time 17.8%
    • Support available none-a little of the time 18.4%
  • Someone to share your most private worries and fears with:
    • Support available most-all of the time 61.2%
    • Support available some of the time 15.9%
    • Support available none-a little of the time 22.9%
  • Someone whose advice you really want:
    • Support available most-all of the time 62.6%
    • Support available some of the time 20.2%
    • Support available none-a little of the time 17.2%
  • Someone to confide in or talk about yourself or your problems:
    • Support available most-all of the time 67.7%
    • Support available some of the time 17.0%
    • Support available none-a little of the time 15.3%
  • Someone to give you good advice about a crisis:
    • Support available most-all of the time 68.2%
    • Support available some of the time 18.7%
    • Support available none-a little of the time 13.1%
  • Someone to give you information to help you understand a situation:
    • Support available most-all of the time 67.6%
    • Support available some of the time 20.0%
    • Support available none-a little of the time 12.4%
  • Someone you can count on to listen to you when you need to talk:
    • Support available most-all of the time 72.4%
    • Support available some of the time 15.7%
    • Support available none-a little of the time 11.9% 

<< Return to Figure 1.2.

Figure 1.3: Change in self-perceived social support categories over time, 2013/14 to 2015/16

Aluvial graph:

  • Change in perceived support categories over time, 2013/14 to 2015/16
  • Highest 25%
  • Middle 50%
  • Lowest 25%

<< Return to Figure 1.3.

Figure 1.4: Satisfaction with personal relationships and among adult men by age, 2015/16

Column graph

  • All men (18-60 years)
    • completely dissatisfied 1.7%
    • neutral 9.6%
    • completely satisfied 17.2%
  • Men 18-24 years
    • completely dissatisfied 0.7%
    • neutral 10.5%
    • completely satisfied 15.5%
  • Men 25-34 years
    • completely dissatisfied 2.3%
    • neutral 9.3%
    • completely satisfied 17.3%
  • Men 35-44 years
    • completely dissatisfied 1.2%
    • neutral 8.3%
    • completely satisfied 15.6%
  • Men 45-60 years
    • completely dissatisfied 1.2%
    • neutral 10.6%
    • completely satisfied 19.3%

<< Return to Figure 1.4.

Figure 2.1: Number of social life events in last 12 months by age group, 2015/16

Stacked bar chart: Number of social life events in last 12 months by age group, 2015/16

  • 18-24 years:
    • None 34.8%
    • 1 24.3%
    • 2 or more 40.9%
  • 25-34 years:
    • None 34.3%
    • 1 26.9%
    • 2 or more 34.8%
  • 35-49 years:
    • None 52.1%
    • 1 26.5%
    • 2 or more 21.4%
  • 50-60 years:
    • None 52.4%
    • 1 26.1%
    • 2 or more 21.5%

<< Return to Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.2: Prevalence of social life events among adult males in the past year, 2015/16

Bar chart

  • Moved house: 16.8%
  • Difficulty finding a job: 15.2%
  • Death of close family: 13.7%
  • Serious conflict: 9.6%
  • Job loss/unsuccessful search: 9.5%
  • Getting married/moving in:6.8%
  • Relationship break-up: 6.7%
  • Family left home: 4.8%
  • Became a father: 3.4%
  • Left home for the first time: 3.4%
  • Started first job: 2.9%
  • Child loss: 1.8%
  • Partner infidelity: 1.8%
  • Retirement: 0.6%

<< Return to Figure 2.2.

Figure 3.1: Mean PHQ-9 score by MOS total score among adult males, by age group, 2015/16

Line graphs

  • All men
  • Men 18-24 years
  • Men 25-34 years
  • Men 35-44 years
  • Men 45-60 years

<< Return to Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.2: Mean MOS score by total PHQ-9 score among adult males by age group, 2015/16

Line graphs

  • All men
  • Men 18-24 years
  • Men 25-34 years
  • Men 35-44 years
  • Men 45-60 years

<< Return to Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.3: A two-wave, two-variable cross-lagged panel model

A two-wave, two-variable cross-lagged panel model

  • Depressive symptoms (Wave 1)
  • Social support (Wave 1)
  • Depressive symptoms (Wave 2)
  • Social support (Wave 2)

<< Return to Figure 3.3:.

Figure 3.4: Two-wave cross-lagged panel model: Results with socio-demographic controls

  • Depressive symptoms (Wave 1) → Depressive symptoms (Wave 2) c=0.590***
  • Depressive symptoms (Wave 1) → Social support (Wave 2) a=-0.700***
  • Social support (Wave 1) → Depressive symptoms (Wave 2) b=-0.007***
  • Social support (Wave 1) → Social support (Wave 2) d=0.493***

<< Return to Figure 3.4.

Figure 4.1: No, some and serious difficulty among adult males in 2015/16, as assessed by the WG-SS, by age group

Column graph

  • 18-24 years:
    • Serious difficulty 7.4%
    • Some difficulty 53.3%
    • No difficulty 39.2%
  • 25-34 years:
    • Serious difficulty 6.6%
    • Some difficulty 50.8%
    • No difficulty 42.5%
  • 35-44 years:
    • Serious difficulty 7.4%
    • Some difficulty 48.8%
    • No difficulty 43.7%
  • 45-54 years:
    • Serious difficulty 9.2%
    • Some difficulty 37.6%
    • No difficulty 53.1%
  • 55-60 years:
    • Serious difficulty 10.3%
    • Some difficulty 33.2%
    • No difficulty 56.4%

<< Return to Figure 4.1.

Figure 4.2: Percentages of adult males with no difficulty, some difficulty, and serious difficulty across six core functional domains in 2015/16

Stacked bar chart

  • Cognition:
    • no difficulty 64.1%,
    • some difficulty 31.5%,
    • serious difficulty 4.3%
  • Visual:
    • no difficulty 80.9%,
    • some difficulty 17.9%,
    • serious difficulty 1.2%
  • Auditory:
    • no difficulty 82.3%
    • some difficulty 16.0%
    • serious difficulty 1.5%
  • Walking:
    • no difficulty 87.2%
    • some difficulty 11.0%
    • serious difficulty 1.8%
  • Communication:
    • no difficulty 90.9%,
    • some difficulty 8.3%,
    • serious difficulty 0.8%
  • Self-care:
    • no difficulty 96.3%,
    • some difficulty 3.1%,
    • serious difficulty 0.6%

<< Return to Figure 4.2.

Figure 4.3: Mean MOS Social Support Scale score by difficulty status (none, some difficulty, serious difficulty) among adult males aged 18-60 in 2015/16

Line graph

  • No difficulty
  • Some difficulty
  • Serious difficulty

<< Return to Figure 4.3.

Figure 4.4: Mean MOS Social Support Scale score among adult males aged 18-60 in 2015/16 with disability, by age

Line graph

  • 18-24 years
  • 25-34 years
  • 35-44 years
  • 45-54 years
  • 55-60 years

<< Return to Figure 4.4.

Figure 4.5: Self-perceived social support by level and type of difficulty among adult males in 2015/16: mean MOS Social Support Scale score

Column chart

  • Visual:
    • no difficulty 70.9%
    • some difficulty 64.6%
    • serious difficulty 50.3%
  • Auditory:
    • no difficulty 70.4%
    • some difficulty 65.5%
    • serious difficulty 62.2%
  • Movement:
    • no difficulty 70.8%
    • some difficulty 60.2%
    • serious difficulty 63.0%
  • Cognition:
    • no difficulty 72.4%
    • some difficulty 64.9%
    • serious difficulty 60.7%
  • Self-care:
    • no difficulty 69.9%
    • some difficulty 58.8%
    • serious difficulty 60.0%
  • Comprehension:
    • no difficulty 70.3%
    • some difficulty 61.1%
    • serious difficulty 63.2%

<< Return to Figure 4.5.

Figure 4.6: Prevalence of 'aloneness' (no close friends/relatives) among males aged 18-60 years in 2015/16, by level of functional difficulty

Column chart

  • No difficulty 2.1%
  • Some difficulty 4.9%
  • Serious difficulty 8.0%

<< Return to Figure 4.6.

Figure 5.1: Estimated prevalence of participation in three types of community-based activities among adult males in 2013/14, by age

Column chart

  • 18-24 years:
    • ongoing community service activity 20.0%
    • active member of sport/hobby club/assoc. 43.3%
    • ever attends religious ceremonies 35.9%; none 36.0%
  • 25-34 years:
    • ongoing community service activity 18.7%
    • active member of sport/hobby club/assoc. 34.9%
    • ever attends religious ceremonies 41.3%; none 35.7%
  • 35-44 years:
    • ongoing community service activity 25.6%
    • active member of sport/hobby club/assoc. 35.2%;
    • ever attends religious ceremonies 44.9%; none 34.0%
  • 45-57 years:
    • ongoing community service activity 28.0%
    • active member of sport/hobby club/assoc. 37.7%
    • ever attends religious ceremonies 43.6%; none 34.8%

<< Return to Figure 5.1.

Figure 5.2: Average MOS Social Support Scale score by level and type of community engagement among adult males aged 18-55 in 2013/14

Line graph

  • (a) Participates in ongoing community service activity:
    • no
    • yes
  • (b) Active member of community-based sporting or hobby club/association:
    • no
    • yes

<< Return to Figure 5.2.

Figure 5.3: Hypothetical mediation model: Independent Variable = Community participation activity; Mediator Variable = Self-perceived social support; Dependent Variable = Personal wellbeing

Independent Variable → Mediator Variable: (a)

Mediator Variable → Dependent Variable: (b)

Independent Variable → Dependent Variable: Direct effect (c')

Independent Variable → Dependent Variable: Total effect (c)

Control Variables eg age, employment, status, level of socio-economic disadvantage → Dependent Variable: (Partial effect of control variables)


<< Return to Figure 5.3.

Figure 5.4: Unadjusted mediation model: Independent Variable = Community service activity; Mediator Variable = Self-perceived social support; Dependent Variable = Personal wellbeing

Community service activity → Perceived social support: (a) - 2.82

Perceived social support → Personal wellbeing: (b) - 0.25

Community service activity → Personal wellbeing: Direct effect (c') - 4.50

Community service activity → Personal wellbeing: Total effect (c) - 5.21


<< Return to Figure 5.4.

Figure 5.5: Unadjusted mediation model: Independent Variable = Sports/hobby club/association membership; Mediator Variable = Self-perceived social support; Dependent Variable = Personal wellbeing

Sports/hobby club/association membership → Perceived social support: (a) - 4.23

Perceived social support → Personal wellbeing: (b) - 0.25

Sports/hobby club/association membership →  Personal wellbeing: Direct effect (c') - 4.67

Sports/hobby club/association membership → Personal wellbeing: Total effect (c) - 5.73


<< Return to Figure 5.5.

Figure 5.6: Multivariable mediation analyses: Participation in community service activities on personal wellbeing through self-perceived social support

Ongoing community service activities → Self perceived social support: (a) - 2.82

Self perceived social support → Personal wellbeing: (b) - 0.25

Ongoing community service activities → Personal wellbeing: Direct effect (c') - 3.63

Ongoing community service activities → Personal wellbeing: Total effect (c) - 4.03

Age, employment, status, relationship status, level of education, identifies as Aboriginal and Toores Strait Islander, level of socio-economic disadvantage, residential location, CALD status, loneliness classification, conformity to masculine norms → Personal wellbeing


<< Return to Figure 5.6.

Figure 5.7: Multivariable mediation analyses: Active sports or hobby club or association membership on personal wellbeing through self-perceived social support

Membership of sports or hobby club/association → Self perceived social support: (a) - 2.14

Self perceived social support → Personal wellbeing: (b) - 0.21

Membership of sports or hobby club/association → Personal wellbeing: Direct effect (c') - 4.47

Membership of sports or hobby club/association → Personal wellbeing: Total effect (c) - 4.01

Age, employment, status, relationship status, level of education, identifies as Aboriginal and Toores Strait Islander, level of socio-economic disadvantage, residential location, CALD status, loneliness classification, conformity to masculine norms → Personal wellbeing


<< Return to Figure 5.7.

Equation

100 * (observed score - minimum possible score)
maximum possible score - minimum possible score


<< Return to Equation.

Figure A1.1: Simple unadjusted mediation model

Independent Variable → Mediator Variable (a)

Mediator Variable → Dependent  Variable (b)

Independent Variable → Dependent Variable (c)


<< Return to Figure A1.1.

Figure B1.1: Distribution of MOS Social Support Scale scores among adult TTM participants overall and by age group, 2015/16

  • All men
  • Men 18-24 years
  • Men 25-34 years
  • Men 35-44 years
  • Men 45-60 years

<< Return to Figure B1.1.

Figure B3.1: Distribution of PHQ-9 scores among adult Ten to Men participants in 2015/16, by age group

Line chart

  • All
  • 18-24 years
  • 25-34 years
  • 35-44 years
  • 45-60 years

<< Return to Figure B3.1.